A Halle is the technical building where all the phases of production are concentrated shielded from the natural elements (wind, rain) and foreigners elements. We find there, the Oven with merger. Mostly of circular shape, it consists of an alandier (firebox) partially buried, crossed by two conduits : On one hand we have the tiseur to feed it with billettes (wood cut in the form of boards), On the other hand the second hole allowing to reach the ashtray to evacuate ashes ; of a sole (big horizontal refractory plate on which we place products to be cut) provided in its center of blowhole by which the heat of the firebox passes. It is surmounted by a hemispherical laboratory. The wall of this last one is drilled by two, four, six or eight openings called ouvreaux, directly above them there is a melting pot or a jar in refractory clay containing the composition of the glass material reduced to the pulverulent state).
The Museum/Center of Art Glass - Carmaux possesses an important collection of regional forest glass factories, material which illustrates the know-how of the glass-making Gentlemen.
From 15th century, period in which we found the first tracks of forest Glass factories implanted in the Tarn and Languedoc, the glass and its uses were democratized. They weren’t reserved any more for a caste.
So objects produced at the time of the forest Glass factories were essentially objects of the everyday life, used for the house, the business, the agriculture... There was also, in Black Mountain in the South of the Tarn, a luxury production which competed with the Glass factories of Murano in Italy.
The objects produced in Languedoc are very particular and easily recognizable, of part their color (blue-green, blue - grey), of part their often simple, stylized forms, sometimes rustic, sometimes very fine and to part their functions. Flasks, bottles, gourds, measures, glasses, jar, to cantor, bridal distaff, etc. …
The function of a majority of these objects is easy to discern, however some of them remain enigmatic. More or less fanciful functions are attributed by latest fads or commercial in objects known well by their traditional use like the gourd of shepherd, harvester, farmer become a feeding-bottle for lambs and for calves.
All the productions of objects realized during this period in the forest glass factories between Black Mountain, Grésigne, the Ariège, and Bazadais are no easily identifiable.
Indeed, the end of the 17th and 19th century the forest Glass factories of the Languedoc were going to adapt their productions according to the demands expressed by their customers with the glass traders who place the orders.
These molded, pressing flabbergasted and puffed glass objects corresponded to the evolution of multiple needs for the company in domains so varied as domestic spots, religion, businesses, factories, agriculture, …
The Art and the Science of Glass making, essentially creative in the Middle Ages with the luxury glass -making "way from Venice", did not produce utilitarian glass since the second half of 19th century. These productions were marketed at a micro-regional level. They will be supplanted from 1850s by industrial Glass factories of the Center, the North and from the East of France, as tell it the various World Fairs (from 1855) which underlined their technical innovations and their commercial dynamism.
Glass factories in the coal remain confined in the production of bottles. The know-how of the glass-making Gentlemen, the modus operandi of the forest Glass factories continued then in the industrial groups, creative craftsmen’s workshops, or the art of the blowing, the Art and Science of Glass -making is effective always nowadays.
Further information were presented in Alain RIOLS’s article, "Glass-making Gentlemen and forest Glass factories of Languedoc "