Since its creation in 18th century the Domain of the Glass factory was at the same time the house of the family of De Solages but also the place dedicated in labor. Indeed, behind the castle, the Royal Glass factory spat its black smokes in several places of the park where wells of coal were exploited. De Solages was a family from an entrepreneurial nobility.
A single vestige situated in the center of the island remains us of these wells. We suppose that this last one could correspond to the “Well of the garden”.
The well of the Garden (1752-1769)
Generally, the coal is exploited by means of called hollow " cros " of a depth included between 40 and 100m.
Characterized by a depth of 80m the “well of the Garden” allowed to exploit one of the most important veins of Carmausin: " the coal was very hard, supported itself very well roughly pieces and was little subject to the dissolution by contact of the air " (Letellier, on 1858).
Since 1720, this well was called " The cros del ponchon ". Acquired by Gabriel de Solages, it renamed it well of the Garden because it was situated near the Glass factory and near the Castle, at the heart of the garden.
In September, 1769, a fire destroyed it. It was stopped by hijacking waters of Merdialou. Since this date, the exploitation of this well was stopped.
The Well of the Flemish (1752-1758)
With depth of 85m, it is the first pit which was dug by the Knight de Solages.
His name came from a colony of recruited workers from Flanders introduced by the “Knight”, who began the extraction by using revolutionary methods.
The well of Montalbo (1748-1758)
Because of their proximity, the wells of Flemish and Montalbo almost formed one unique welle.
With a depth of 70m, it was abandoned because of the abundance of the water.
In these two wells, the workers worked according to a dayrim (in the daytime with 2 hours of rest for 15 money and a wine bottle).
The lime kiln (by 1769-1880)
From Belgium Théodore Fastre (1724-1805) was guiding the Mines (1754-1787) and was the mayor of Carmaux (1792-1795).
In 1759, he built next to his house a lime kiln settled near the castle of the De Solages. Here he warmed stones of limestone stemming from grounds of the municipalities of Blaye and from St-Benoît with the charbonille (fine coal mixe with schists).
He limed several fields belonging to him and obtained superior yields on wheat.
This process was noticed by the Bursar of the province of Languedoc and this practice grown up.
The lime will find several utilities :
- In agriculture: liming, sulphating and sulphurization of vineyards.. A proverb says " which limes without smoking ruins itself without thinking of it ".
- In glass factory: it is one of components entant in the glass-making.
- In the mines : Théodore Fastre uses it as waterproof cover in the fonçage of wells.
- In the building: the ash of the lime is used for the manufacturing of mortar.
The lime constitutes a food for the plant: it coagulates the clay, accelerates the decomposition of has organic matter and especially neutralizes the acid lands.